4 Legal tips to start your tshirt business in India

Any business or event or celebration can be more flamboyant with custom printed tshirts. There are only a few things that you need to know about legally doing your tshirt business right.

Here we took the time to address all the possible queries to make your own custom tshirt printing experience at ease with the legal compliance.

We are tshirt manufacturers in Tirupur. We print custom tshirts and ship it to the customer across India & Globe. With our experience, we will give way few crucial points that will help you to get legal aspects having positive and negative impacts.

Let say We as tshirt manufacturer, when you order Printed Tshirts. We will evaluate all the legalities as much as possible & discuss the same with you as customers. You trust us. its a duty of a tshirt manufacturer to put things straight.

Before we start with legal tips. Have this one line in your mind
“Customer is everything. Rest all is just a choice”

Give us a call @ +91- 96888 95559 to manufacture your tshirts merchandise. We are here to help.


1.Know the basics, It helps:

™ – TM Symbol

The TM symbol is used when an application for the trademark is made with the trademark registry. It is an intellectual property where you can trademark “name, word, phrase, logo, symbol, or a combination of these elements

When you trademark something, It gives direct warning to the infringers & the counter-fitters that the particular element is trademarked and is legally an offence to use it

® – R Symbol

The R symbol denotes that the trademark is registered. Registered logo or elements trademarked enjoys protection from infringement under the Trademark laws.

Statutory Notice: Use of the ® symbol after filing a trademark application or without obtaining trade mark registration is unlawful.

©- C Symbol

The © symbol stands for copyright and is a reserved right notice concerning any work that can be copyrighted like artwork, photography, videography, books, literary works, etc.

In simple words: When you take copyright of your tshirt design when someone intends to use your tshirt designs for custom print tshirts. The person intending to make use of your copyrighted design has to pay a royalty for every single sale he/she makes with that particular tshirt design or share profits in terms of stocks or benefits of some kind.

Using your copyrighted work will become a legal offence if proper permission in not got from you.

For Tshirt business,
When you want to protect your tshirt designs. The only way is COPYRIGHTS.
When it comes to brand protection. You have the trademark and the next stage is Registered

Apart from all these, there is only one thing that I would personally insist any tshirt entrepreneur. When you are starting your tshirt business in India or anywhere as a partnership.

Ensure you carve down a clear contract between partners about
who owns the trademark of the brand at the end?
what is the compensation of the partner(s) giving up the brand for the one?
How would you evaluate the brand value?

It’s Business, No body is a greed less monk here.

As a great line from the movie Founder says it beautifully.
“Dog eat Dog. Rat eat Rat – Its Business”

2.First things First: Beware of COPYRIGHTS ISSUE.

Why would a customer either tshirt supplier or tshirts loving person would buy your tshirts of a new brand. They want it from a big brand to show off that’s the attitude of few young fashion oriented people. They fail to understand that there are tonne of companies provide great quality tshirts than these fancy highly advertised brands

As t shirt manufacturers, we encounter this specific area that enthusiastic newbie to the tshirt business gives lesser importance.

Yes, It cost the same to manufacture any branded tshirts & tshirts manufactured for our customers with their own attractive designs.

This question comes & goes all the time.
As tshirt manufacturers, why can’t you manufacture branded apparels?.

Yes, Manufacturing or selling will land anyone in trouble. Without having proper approval from the Licensee, Selling any counterfeit products is punishable by Indian Law.

IPC 486
Selling goods marked with a counterfeit property mark


Whoever sells, or exposes, or has in possession for sale, any goods or things with a counterfeit property mark affixed to or impressed upon the same or to or upon any case, package or another receptacle in which such goods are contained, shall, unless he proves:

that, having taken all reasonable precautions against committing an offence against this section, he had at the time of the commission of the alleged offence no reason to suspect the genuineness of the mark, and

that, on demand made by or on behalf of the prosecutor, he gave all the information in his power with respect to the persons from whom he obtained such goods or things, or

that otherwise, he had acted innocently,

be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

Classification u/schedule 1 CrPC

Offence: Knowingly selling goods marked with a counterfeit property mark
Punishment: 1 Year or Fine or Both
Cognizance: Non-Cognizable (Police Officer cannot arrest or investigate until a court order is issued)
Bail: Bailable ”

So, Ensure you don’t sell any such goods and land in trouble. It directly means that you should not use any copyright or trade mark or Registered property of designs or patterns or any kind of direct images

“You can source inspiration”

from any branded or copyrighted images. even though, these branded companies would object or threaten to sue. You will definitely win the legal battle in the end. Use your brains carefully & creatively without any line for infringement.

3.How to protect your designs of tshirts? Yes it is possible:

As t shirt manufacturers, we process many designs for custom print tshirts. With us, yes we don’t share your designs with any of our clients. Once the screen is done with the job, It would be destroyed then and there leaving no stones un turned. Your design will be protected with us while manufacturing your custom print tshirts.

Let’s say, we manufacture & send it to you. You are intending to sell the tshirts on these market places. You will be uploading a high-resolution image for a more lucrative look to the visitor. What will you do when a design hungry trader steals your design from the marketplace & replicate it.

Or you design get leaked online via some digital breach.

Here is what you can to do to protect your images:

You can copyright your images by filing your artwork with COPYRIGHT OFFICE which will cost you somewhere around Rs 200 to Rs 40,000 for a single artwork or design.

Here is the price chart for the application http://copyright.gov.in/frmFeeDetailsShow.aspx

Getting Copyright is a tedious process. You can find the work flow here http://copyright.gov.in/frmWorkFlow.aspx

You can register yourself here http://copyright.gov.in/UserRegistration/frmLoginPage.aspx

Unless or until you go through these tedious process and get your intellectual property copyrighted, Anyone can use your images with or without your permission. Ensure if you are more concerned about your work. get essential legalities enrolled.

4.What are the elements that you should not use in your Custom tshirts business?

  • Fancy characters like Harry Potter, Superman, Tom & Jerry & alike
  • Images & portraits or any kind of famous people like politicians, actors & alike
  • Branded logos from other companies like Puma, Zara & alike
  • Copyrighted Quotes or slogans

Update: To check whether your brand name is trademarked or not.

You got to check with Ministry of Commerce & Industry
For Apparels, Incase if your starting your tshirt brand. This is the first thing that you need to do. Check for the name that you have chosen for your brand conflicts with other brands or don’t

It can be done easy. Click on the link below.

  • Enter the Name of your brand in the Wordmark Column
  • In the class column. Mention Class 25
  • Then search.
  • If there is conflict then you need to change your name or get ready to fight the company legally

Hope you have enjoyed the article. Start Smart & be a successful tshirtpreneur

If you want anything about tshirts. I am right here. Call me up +91-96888 95559 or email me at di****@ra***********.com

Click the link to know How to start your tshirt business online in India

4 Legal tips to start your tshirt business in India2023-12-04T05:09:35+00:00

How to find Fabric Manufacturers & Suppliers in India

A step-by-step guide to sourcing fabrics for fashion brands and designers:

When turning idea into a garment, one of the major decisions all fashion designers face is what type of fabric to use and where to find it.

Fabric is a term that refers to the material that is composed of yarn or fibres and is used in the manufacturing of items such as clothing, homeware, bags, and shoes. Due to the fact that various fabrics each possess their own unique properties, there are literally hundreds of different qualities and varieties available.

Finding the appropriate fabric when you’re first starting out as an entrepreneur with your own clothing line or fashion brand can be difficult. When there are so many fabric suppliers all over the world, it can be difficult to find the ones that sell the perfect fabric for your project.

This is our comprehensive step-by-step guide to locating and purchasing the ideal fabric for your project.

The impact of the material on the design:

Your choice of fabric will have a significant influence, both in terms of the quality and production of the finished garment you create. Before you approach fabric suppliers & fabric manufacturers,you need to finalise important details of your clothing line such as design, functionality.

The following are some of the ways in which the fit, functionality, and technical construction of your garment can be affected by the fabrics:

• Weight – Once you have an idea of the approximate dimensions of your garment, you will be able to calculate the width of the fabric that will be required to make it.

• Drape refers to the way in which a piece of fabric hangs and falls from the body. The greater the drape, the greater the fabric will hang after it is draped. On the other hand, fabrics with less drape will have a fall that is more see-through and liquid-like.

• Stretch – The amount of stretch a fabric has will determine how well it fits and how it feels. It is possible to express it in either a horizontal (two-way) or vertical (four-way) stretch (horizontal and vertical).

• Shrinkage is something that will have an impact on how well the garment holds up over time. If the fabric has not been pre-washed before production, there is a possibility that it will shrink when the end user washes it.

One of the most common challenges that young designers face is figuring out how to differentiate their brand from the competition. To achieve this, do plenty of market research and find your niche. Put your attention on the ways in which you can make a difference, highlight your core values, and describe how you would like your customers to appear and feel.

Formulate the appropriate questions:

After you have decided on the purpose of your brand and the path it will take creatively, it is time to construct a tech pack. This is a document that outlines the proper construction of your garment and can be found here. It includes essential details such as the type of fabric, the trims, the dimensions, the constructions, and the components. These specific design details and technical specifications are absolutely necessary for the production of your garment.

Confirming all of these essential particulars before beginning the process of sourcing fabric will help you save both time and money. In the end, it will assist you in selecting which supplier to collaborate with based on your timeline, quantities, sizing, and any other requirements that you have.

Before you choose your provider, here is a checklist of the nine most important criteria that you should always take into consideration:

Fabric construction:

The functionality of the garment you are designing will have an effect on the ideal fabric that you source. The following is a list of the most common types of fabric structures, along with some examples of how they are utilised:

One of the most important aspects of the design process is having a solid understanding of how different types of fabric are constructed as well as which type of fabric will work best for the final product.

Woven fabric is one of the most common types of fabric and is created by interlacing two or more sets of yarn at right angles to create a checkered pattern. Woven fabric is one of the most common types of fabric. Jeans, suits, and collared shirts are typically woven fabrics because of their durability and versatility.

Knitted – Knits are an additional well-liked choice of fabric, particularly for the construction of lightweight garments. T-shirts, leggings, and sweaters are all great examples of items that would benefit from the use of these interlooped yarns, which are created by interlacing two or more strands of yarn.

Non-woven materials are manufactured by laminating, felting, or other processes that involve mechanical, chemical, or thermal bonding of fibres. Because of its ability to wick away moisture, this type of fabric is frequently used for athletic wear as well as swimwear.

Find high-quality fabrics that have the best possible composition for the garment you’re making by basing it on its intended use. You should also pay attention to the content and composition of the fabric you are using, as well as mention any specialised finishing treatments, such as washing and waterproofing, that you require. If you are unsure what to do, your provider will be happy to offer their recommendations and guidance.

Minimum order quantity (MOQ):

To put it another way, the minimum order quantity (MOQ) refers to the smallest quantity that can be purchased from a supplier for each individual order. When determining the minimum order quantity (MOQ), price and fabric measurement are typically two factors that are taken into consideration. This is something that will most likely happen to you when you are sourcing from fabric mills, jobbers, or trade shows; however, the specifics will vary depending on who you approach. The minimum order quantity (MOQ) required by each supplier will vary depending on the materials, total manufacturing costs, and location of the supplier.

If you are a designer just getting started, you probably do not want to place an order for a large quantity right away. It is important to keep in mind that the minimum order quantity (MOQ) can be influenced by a variety of factors, which can sometimes leave room for negotiation. For example:

Alternatives (e.g. colour, size, and material)

Lower minimum with a greater increase in price

Combined orders with another buyer

Sourcing closer to home

You also have the option of requesting a minimum order quantity that is lower. It is possible that you will find a supplier who is willing to accept your offer based on the fact that they are eager to take your order at some point. In most cases, the cost of a smaller order will be greater than the cost of an order placed in bulk.

Payment terms and conditions:

Always determine the terms and conditions of the payment method before committing to placing an order. This includes for the purposes of production and sampling.

When ordering bespoke fabrics, you should make a deposit of fifty percent and then pay the remaining fifty percent when the fabric is ready to be dispatched. Any fabric that is currently available for purchase can be paid for in advance.

Price per metre/yard:

The price per metre or yard of a fabric will vary depending on the market and how much it costs to make the fabric.

After taking into account the cost of any trims and fastenings, the total retail price of your final product, and the fabric yield (the number of garments you get from a yard/metre), the price that you pay per metre or yard of fabric will depend on your budget.

Width of the fabric

There are two measurements: the overall width, as well as the width at which it can be cut. Only take the cuttable width from your supplier because this is the measurement from side to side minus the selvedge, which is an outer border that shouldn’t be used because it is woven to protect the rest of the fabric from damage.

To get a rough idea of how much fabric you will need to order, you should first create a lay plan of your pattern pieces.

Weight of the fabric

The grams per square meter measurement is used to determine how heavy or light your fabric is (GSM). Nevertheless, this almost always refers to the thickness of your fabric, with the GMS indicating the density and increasing with it as the number increases. The design, functionality/durability, and fit of your garment will determine the GSM of the fabric you use.

The following are some examples of fabrics that have different weights:

Mesh, chiffon, lace, and lightweight cotton are examples of lightweight fabrics.

• Fabrics with a weight somewhere in the middle: satin, velvet, linen, polyester, and cashmere

• Fabrics with a substantial weight, such as denim, canvas, wool, tweed, and flannel

Stock levels

It is possible that some fabrics will only be produced in a limited quantity or will be phased out entirely, whereas other options will continue to be available for a number of years. As a result, it is essential to make sure that you always check the availability of the fabrics that you are interested in purchasing. If you are just starting out as a designer, it is highly recommended that you begin by sourcing fabrics that have a guaranteed availability for any reorders.

lag time or lead time

When it comes to custom orders, the lead time for the development of the fabric can range anywhere from one month for the sampling phase to several months for the bulk production phase. Always get an estimate of the lead time before production begins, and stay in contact with the vendor throughout the process to make sure the delivery date can be stuck to.

Another thing to keep in mind regarding this situation is continuity, as well as the lead time for any reorders that may be necessary. This can ensure that you continue to place orders for fabrics in a timely manner for any restocking that may be necessary.

Origins as well as long-term viability:

The fashion industry is responsible for ten percent of all greenhouse gas emissions caused by humans and twenty percent of all wastewater produced worldwide. Because manufacturing is the primary source of pollution, you should always investigate the origins of the fabric you’re purchasing as well as the manufacturing process involved.

Start by being conscious of the choices you make and the impact they have on the world around you if you want your fashion brand to become more environmentally friendly. Investigate the supply chain and insist on full disclosure from the vendors in order to learn more about the origins of the raw materials that are incorporated into the fabric. Pick environmentally friendly materials like organic cotton or pia fabric for your projects, and make sure the factories you buy from are fair to their employees. In an effort to reduce waste and pollution, the fashion industry should transition toward circular design, in which materials can be recycled and reused without risk of harm. Your clothing line has the potential to make a positive impact on the environment if you take the time to understand the implications to the environment.

Check out this article on five innovative fabrics made from sustainable materials to learn more about environmentally friendly fabrics.

Research the various types of fabric suppliers available:

Your choice of fabric is important not only for your collection but also for your fashion brand as a whole. Your choice of fabric will ultimately have an effect on the appearance, comfort, fit, and function of the garment you create. Before choosing a fabric supplier, it is important to consider all of your sourcing options in order to find fashion fabric of the highest possible quality at an affordable price.

Fabric mills:

Fabric mills, also known as textile mills, are the facilities responsible for the transformation of raw materials into thread for the purpose of fabric production. Weaving and knitting are the most common methods, and then the fabric goes through the printing and dying processes before it is sent to a factory to be made into items of clothing such as t-shirts, jackets, leggings, and other items. Because fabric mills are typically wholesale suppliers that specialise in certain textiles like cashmere, silk, and leather, we strongly recommend that you conduct a significant amount of research prior to contacting one of these establishments. Fabric mills are excellent places to go to in order to purchase bespoke fabric. However, as a result of this, the minimum order quantity (MOQ) is frequently quite high, and the lead time is significantly longer.


Some textile mills do not handle the full process of transforming raw materials into a finished fabric. This can be frustrating for customers. Before selling it to you, a converter will first process the unfinished fabric by dying, bleaching, and printing it. You will then purchase the finished product.

Fabric sales agents and representatives:

You can order fabrics from agents and reps if you are interested in buying fabric in bulk or placing orders to buy fabric in wholesale quantities. These suppliers act as a liaison between you and the mills or manufacturers they represent. They do so by gaining an understanding of what it is you require and streamlining the ordering process. Some agents and reps work with multiple fabric mills and specialise in sourcing across the world, which will save you time and maximise your efficiency. These agents and reps work with multiple fabric mills. Keep in mind that they frequently work on commission, which means that the prices may be higher than the going rate.

Fabric stores as well as jobbers:

Fabric mills, clothing manufacturers, and fashion designers all sell their scraps to jobbers, who then buy and resell them. They keep a stock of fabric in order to sell it to new designers, start-up businesses, entrepreneurs, and other manufacturers with the added benefit of having a low order minimum. A similar system is used in fabric stores, where customers can peruse hundreds of fabric swatches in order to purchase a small quantity of fabric that is within their financial means or to find inspiration for their own fashion design. Because it may not be possible to reorder the same fabric from jobbers and stores, these types of businesses are best suited for one-off projects.

Events such as trade fairs and expos:

These are recurring occasions that take place in different parts of the world every year. Trade shows and expos are ideal for sourcing all kinds of fabrics, including embellishments and trims, because there are so many fabric suppliers present at these events. In the vast fashion industry, exhibitors are always looking for new business; as a result, they will have more time to devote to working with smaller businesses; as a result, new designers are encouraged to attend trade shows and expos.

How to find Fabric Manufacturers & Suppliers in India2023-01-19T04:50:17+00:00
  • single-jersey-fabric-768x480



Single Jersey is a knitted fabric with a soft stretch with front-facing a single rib pattern knit and backside of knitted loops (Moon Shape). As fabric manufacturers in Tirupur, Single Jersey Knitted fabric are manufactured mostly with 100% Cotton. with the current innovation in manufacturing the fabric, there is a host of fabric composition is being used by fabric manufacturers. In General, the single fabric is manufactured like a light to medium weight category.

A single jersey is a weft-knitted fabric that is formed by one set of needles. Tshirt manufacturers use mostly single jersey for making High-Quality Crew Neck T-shirts across the globe. This fabric is much warm, flexible, stretchy, & comfortable to wear


There are various types of fabric knit, Manufacturing single jersey fabric is the most cost-friendly fabric

  1. Single Knit Jersey Manufacturing.
    Single knit jersey is made using one set of needles and appears smooth on the front side and looped at the backside.
  2. Double-knit jersey Manufacturing.
    In other names known to be Interlock fabric, Interlock fabric is manufactured to provide smooth surfaces on both sides.


  1. Face side and back side of fabric are different.FRONT SINGLE JERSEY FABRIC:








  2. Curl or roll of fabric occurs at the edges.
  3. Single jersey is less expensive for fabric manufacturers than comparing to double jersey fabric manufacturing.
  4. Wales are clearly visible on the face side of the fabric.Verticals are called WALES(FRONT SIDE):



    Horizontals are called COURSES(BACK SIDE):



What is a SINGLE JERSEY FABRIC?2023-01-19T04:57:35+00:00
  • Know-Volumetric-weight-on-starting-a-tshirt-business-in-india

How to calculate volumetric weight for your tshirts


Know-How to calculate the volumetric weight for your t-shirt courier:


Dimensional accuracy plays a crucial role with the shipping partners.

Know why.
Let’s say you got your brand ready for shipping. You make a good quality attractive cardboard box without checking the measurement of it & you only check the total weight. which leads to the scenario where you shell out your profits uselessly by paying extra for the courier partner.

whenever you calculate in all the shipping rate calculators, you will find only the total weight, not the volumetric weight.
But volumetric weight is important.

Note: Most of the shipping partners will not make it visible & transparent. you will mess it up after investing the money. I reiterate.

Watch this very carefully, The formula for volumetric weight:

let’s say I ship my products from Lovely Bengaluru to Delhi. I have my t-shirt and box put together weighing .450g.

I have assumed the charges for the courier is Rs 55 for .500 grams

But my box dimensions are 25CM LENGTH X 25CM WIDTH X 5CM HEIGHT.

Volumetric weight = (L in CM X W in CM X H in CM )/5000

Volumetric weight for my box = ( 25CM X 25CM X 5CM )/5000 = 0.625g

Now it clearly seems that my parcel’s total weight is .450g but the volumetric weight is .625g
Courier partners will take whichever is higher. accordingly, charges will be levied.

Now I am shelling out ₹110 in place of ₹55.
This is because the courier partner will charge a price for 1 kg as the volumetric weight is .625g

So, Make sure that when you design your corrugated design box by keeping volumetric weight in your mind.
Your entire parcel weight and volumetric weight has to be lesser than .500g for the courier charge of .500g slab to be applied.

How to calculate volumetric weight for your tshirts2023-01-19T04:56:46+00:00

How to set IGST SGST CGST in shopify GST Settings


Its been while all the small startup that we work with coming up this complicated yet simple doubt about setting GST slab in the columns of taxes under Shopify.
So we took some time to write

Shopify is an amazing e-commerce engine that leverages doing an e-commerce business at a breeze.
But at the same time – Shopify is used worldwide so one might find the words complicated which are not any different.

For setting TAXES under Shopify Engine in India

1. Go to settings.
2. Select TAXES option
3. Under TAX REGIONS. You will get INDIA
4. then on the “EDIT” Option that is available parallel to INDIA.
5. Under TAXES column of INDIA

You will see words like ” COUNTRY TAX, FEDERAL TAX and so on”

Country Tax:
Country tax is nothing but tax applicable for a particular product in compliance to the country’s tax system.

Federal Tax:
Federal tax is just another name for the country tax to understand. which is not any different but a different word used in the columns for country tax


Before which you should know what is CGST, SGST & IGST and how can I apply it on the invoices generated.

CGST & SGST – Intra state tax:

CGST – basically in INDIA “its central government’s share of tax that people pay”
SGST – basically in INDIA “its state government’s share of tax that people pay”

For Tshirts having MRP less than ₹999 is GST 5% SLAB

the break up of CGST is 2.5%
the break up of SGST is 2.5%

IGST – Interstate tax: INTEGRATED TAX
For other states – IGST of 5% Applies.

As I said before country tax and federal tax option in Shopify has the same meaning.

Now you got to understand,

1. Added to % of federal tax – Added to the existing tax bracket
Lets say if you have set the country tax to 2.5% – Then if you select ” ADDED TO 2.5% OF FEDERAL TAX”

It basically means you are adding 2.5% + 2.5% as the total tax.

2. Instead of % of federal tax
Lets say if you have set the country tax to 2.5% – then if you select “INSTEAD OF 2.5% OF FEDERAL TAX”

It basically means that you are not applying the general country tax ( Say 2.5 %) but a new tax % that you have mentioned columns for each states


Let’s say – I am doing a t-shirt business in “NAMMA BENGALURU:)” – When I tend to invoice for all the orders inside KARNATAKA
Then CGST & SGST has to be applied



If you notice, only with state you are operating – SGST will be shown.


How to set IGST SGST CGST in shopify GST Settings2023-01-19T04:52:10+00:00
  • Various-Classes-to-trademark-your-brand-768x427

Various Classes of Trademark – Intellectual Property

These are the various classes in trademarking your brand.



Class 1 Chemicals used in industry, science and photography, as well as in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; unprocessed artificial resins, unprocessed plastics; manures; fire extinguishing compositions; tempering and soldering preparations; chemical substances for preserving foodstuffs; tanning substances; adhesives used in industry.
Class 2 Paints, varnishes, lacquers; preservatives against rust and against deterioration of wood; colorants; mordants; raw natural resins; metals in foil and powder form for painters, decorators, printers and artists.
Class 3 Bleaching preparations and other substances for laundry use; cleaning, polishing, scouring and abrasive preparations; soaps; perfumery, essential oils, cosmetics, hair lotions; dentifrices.
Class 4 Industrial oils and greases; lubricants; dust absorbing, wetting and binding compositions; fuels (including motor spirit) and illuminants; candles and wicks for lighting.
Class 5 Pharmaceutical and veterinary preparations; sanitary preparations for medical purposes; dietetic substances adapted for medical use, food for babies; plasters, materials for dressings; material for stopping teeth, dental wax; disinfectants; preparations for destroying vermin; fungicides, herbicides.
Class 6 Common metals and their alloys; metal building materials; transportable buildings of metal; materials of metal for railway tracks; non-electric cables and wires of common metal; ironmongery, small items of metal hardware; pipes and tubes of metal; safes; goods of common metal not included in other classes; ores.
Class 7 Machines and machine tools; motors and engines (except for land vehicles); machine coupling and transmission components (except for land vehicles); agricultural implements other than hand-operated; incubators for eggs.
Class 8 Hand tools and implements (hand-operated); cutlery; side arms; razors.
Class 9 Scientific, nautical, surveying, photographic, cinematographic, optical, weighing, measuring, signalling, checking (supervision), life-saving and teaching apparatus and instruments; apparatus and instruments for conducting, switching, transforming, accumulating, regulating or controlling electricity; apparatus for recording, transmission or reproduction of sound or images; magnetic data carriers, recording discs; automatic vending machines and mechanisms for coin-operated apparatus; cash registers, calculating machines, data processing equipment and computers; fire-extinguishing apparatus.
Class 10 Surgical, medical, dental and veterinary apparatus and instruments, artificial limbs, eyes and teeth; orthopedic articles; suture materials.
Class 11 Apparatus for lighting, heating, steam generating, cooking, refrigerating, drying, ventilating, water supply and sanitary purposes.
Class 12 Vehicles; apparatus for locomotion by land, air or water.
Class 13 Firearms; ammunition and projectiles; explosives; fireworks.
Class 14 Precious metals and their alloys and goods in precious metals or coated therewith, not included in other classes; jewellery, precious stones; horological and chronometric instruments.
Class 15 Musical instruments.
Class 16 Paper, cardboard and goods made from these materials, not included in other classes; printed matter; bookbinding material; photographs; stationery; adhesives for stationery or household purposes; artists’ materials; paint brushes; typewriters and office requisites (except furniture); instructional and teaching material (except apparatus); plastic materials for packaging (not included in other classes); printers’ type; printing blocks.
Class 17 Rubber, gutta-percha, gum, asbestos, mica and goods made from these materials and not included in other classes; plastics in extruded form for use in manufacture; packing, stopping and insulating materials; flexible pipes, not of metal.
Class 18 Leather and imitations of leather, and goods made of these materials and not included in other classes; animal skins, hides; trunks and travelling bags; umbrellas, parasols and walking sticks; whips, harness and saddlery.
Class 19 Building materials (non-metallic); non-metallic rigid pipes for building; asphalt, pitch and bitumen; non-metallic transportable buildings; monuments, not of metal.
Class 20 Furniture, mirrors, picture frames; goods (not included in other classes) of wood, cork, reed, cane, wicker, horn, bone, ivory, whalebone, shell, amber, mother-of-pearl, meerschaum and substitutes for all these materials, or of plastics.
Class 21 Household or kitchen utensils and containers; combs and sponges; brushes (except paint brushes); brush-making materials; articles for cleaning purposes; steelwool; unworked or semi-worked glass (except glass used in building); glassware, porcelain and earthenware not included in other classes.
Class 22 Ropes, string, nets, tents, awnings, tarpaulins, sails, sacks and bags (not included in other classes); padding and stuffing materials (except of rubber or plastics); raw fibrous textile materials.
Class 23 Yarns and threads, for textile use.
Class 24 Textiles and textile goods, not included in other classes; bed and table covers.
Class 25 Clothing, footwear, headgear.
Class 26 Lace and embroidery, ribbons and braid; buttons, hooks and eyes, pins and needles; artificial flowers.
Class 27 Carpets, rugs, mats and matting, linoleum and other materials for covering existing floors; wall hangings (non-textile).
Class 28 Games and playthings; gymnastic and sporting articles not included in other classes; decorations for Christmas trees.
Class 29 Meat, fish, poultry and game; meat extracts; preserved, frozen, dried and cooked fruits and vegetables; jellies, jams, compotes; eggs, milk and milk products; edible oils and fats.
Class 30 Coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar, rice, tapioca, sago, artificial coffee; flour and preparations made from cereals, bread, pastry and confectionery, ices; honey, treacle; yeast, baking-powder; salt, mustard; vinegar, sauces (condiments); spices; ice.
Class 31 Agricultural, horticultural and forestry products and grains not included in other classes; live animals; fresh fruits and vegetables; seeds, natural plants and flowers; foodstuffs for animals, malt.
Class 32 Beers; mineral and aerated waters and other non-alcoholic drinks; fruit drinks and fruit juices; syrups and other preparations for making beverages.
Class 33 Alcoholic beverages (except beers).
Class 34 Tobacco; smokers’ articles; matches.


Class 35 Advertising; business management; business administration; office functions.
Class 36 Insurance; financial affairs; monetary affairs; real estate affairs.
Class 37 Building construction; repair; installation services.
Class 38 Telecommunications.
Class 39 Transport; packaging and storage of goods; travel arrangement.
Class 40 Treatment of materials.
Class 41 Education; providing of training; entertainment; sporting and cultural activities.
Class 42 Scientific and technological services and research and design relating thereto; industrial analysis and research services; design and development of computer hardware and software.
Class 43 Services for providing food and drink; temporary accommodation.
Class 44 Medical services; veterinary services; hygienic and beauty care for human beings or animals; agriculture, horticulture and forestry services.
Class 45 Legal services; security services for the protection of property and individuals; personal and social services rendered by others to meet the needs of individuals.
Various Classes of Trademark – Intellectual Property2023-01-19T04:52:49+00:00

Raja M. Shanmugam elected as the new president of Tirupur Exporters’ Association (TEA).

Mr., Raja M. Shanmugam elected as the new president of  Tirupur Exporters’ Association (TEA) after Padma Shri Dr. A shaktivel stepped down as TEA President to leave way for youngsters on Aug .

M. Velusamy and K.M. Subramanian were elected as vice-presidents
T.R. Vijayakumar as the new general secretary.

The change of guard was seen in the industry as the result of a group of younger and progressive entrepreneurs, who floated “Team for Change”.

Below is an interesting article from http://www.theweekendleader.com on Raja M Shanmugam.

Defying every established business principle, a garment export company in Tiruppur has served a single German client for 16 years – without seeking new clients – and increased its turnover from around Rs 7 crore in 2000 to Rs 80 crore in 2015-16.

“I know they say ‘don’t put all your eggs in a single basket’, but it worked for us,” asserts Raja M Shanmugam, 52, founder of Warsaw International, a company that was started with Rs 5 lakh in 1989.

Raja Shanmugam started Warsaw International along with his brother and mother as partners in 1989 with an investment of Rs 5 lakh (Photos: H K Rajashekar)

Shanmugam’s success story might inspire youngsters standing at the crossroads of life after facing successive failures. If you think you have hit a dead end, this story will give you a different perspective of life – that every loss is for good, and every disappointment is for your betterment.

A first generation entrepreneur, Shanmugam hails from an agrarian family. His father was primarily a cotton farmer, but also cultivated other seasonal crops in the good old Tiruppur – which until the 1970s was more like an overgrown village and had little of the urban characteristics it boasts of now.


Shanmugam, the second among four siblings, has fond memories of his childhood. His family owned an Ambassador car and they had a couple of horses at home.

“My father loved horses, and we had a horse cart which we rode to places as far as 50 to 60 km from Tiruppur

“We used to travel in the Ambassador on long pilgrimage tours during school holidays. Around 11 to 12 people – including cousins – would squeeze into the car and go on those trips. It was great fun,” he reminisces.

Between then and now, Tiruppur has grown into India’s textile and knitwear hub. About 2,000 garment factories and hundreds of printing, dyeing, and embroidery units are located here and the cluster’s turnover is estimated at Rs 36,000 crore.

Shanmugam studied at Bishop Ubagara Swamy School in Tiruppur. When he didn’t get an engineering seat, he decided to do BA with the ambition of cracking the IAS.

After graduating in history from St. Joseph’s College, Trichy, Raja left for Delhi in 1987 to join a coaching centre there to prepare for the UPSC exams.

He enrolled in the three-year LL.B course at Delhi University planning to acquire a law degree while preparing for the UPSC exam. He cleared the UPSC prelims in his first attempt, but failed in the mains.

Warsaw International which was started with 25 workers, now employs around 1,000 people

The next year, he sailed past the mains, but failed at the interview stage. However, in his third attempt he could not clear the prelims itself. That’s when he decided to put a full stop to his IAS dream and return to Tiruppur.

“All others who were preparing with me got into one of the services. Some like Sylendra Babu and M Ravi are now senior IPS officers in Tamil Nadu,” he says.

It seemed like his whole world was falling apart and nothing was going right for him. Both his engineering and civil services dreams had come to nought and he could not complete his law degree either.

The year was 1989 and his younger brother M Ramaswamy too had returned to Tiruppur after completing his graduation from Loyola College, Chennai.

It was in this scenario that the brothers decided to venture into business and started ‘Warsaw International’ – named after the Warsaw Pact nations, which Shanmugam was fond of as a student of history.

Warsaw is a partnership firm. Both the brothers and their mother hold equal stakes in it. “We made an initial investment of Rs 5 lakh; we raised Rs 2 lakh by selling some land and got a bank loan of Rs 3 lakh by mortgaging our property.”

“We faced a lot of challenges initially since we were first generation entrepreneurs. We learned each and everything by experience,” shares Shanmugam.

T Shirts made from Warsaw International’s factory at Tiruppur are exported exclusively to Tom Tailor, a German company

They started with 12 sewing machines and about 25 workers, and their first business was a sub-contract to make T Shirts from a local export company.

They would procure the yarn, get the fabric done outside, then give it for dyeing, printing, embellishment work like embroidery, and do the final stitching at their factory, a 4,000 sq ft shed that belonged to their family.

“We achieved a turnover of around Rs 20 to 25 lakh in the first year. Right from the first year it was a profitable venture. But we kept ploughing back the money into the business adding new equipment,” says Shanmugam.

Soon, they took another sub-contract from a Mumbai client and by 1991-92 their turnover crossed Rs 50 lakh.

In 1992, they bagged their first export order from Textile Puttemans, a Belgian company. “In those days, it was difficult to get direct access to clients. We used to send fax or telex messages seeking appointments and then visited the clients in Europe.

“The first order itself was a huge one and worth around Rs 75 to 80 lakh. It was a good break and we started getting more orders,” says Shanmugam.

By 1995-96, the turnover touched Rs 4.5 crore. That’s when Shanmugam took a critical decision to slow down the growth rate, put the reverse gear and just cater to two customers – Textile Puttemans and Tom Tailor.

Standing tall: Raja Shanmugam took the decision to cater to a single client in 2000

“We took the decision when we found that we had not managed our finances well and the company’s liquidity position was not good. We had made investments in some non-productive areas,” says Shanmugam.

Within two years they achieved a healthy balance sheet. But instead of ramping up, Shanmugam chose to focus on a single client – Tom Tailor. “At that time Tom Tailor was a promising and growing company,” he says.

Warsaw’s turnover then was Rs 7 crore – in the year 2000. From that time both companies have grown together, with Warsaw’s turnover increasing year on year.

“Some years the growth has been slow, some years it’s been steep. 2004-05 has been the best so far when our turnover jumped from Rs 35 crore to 50 crore.

“Tom Tailor procures from other companies as well, but we supply only to them; it was not a condition that they imposed, it was our choice,” clarifies Shanmugam.

However, the company is now set to cater to two more clients in order to increase its turnover to Rs 130- 150 crore in the next financial year.

That’s because Shanmugam who recently took over as the president of Tiruppur Exporters Association (TEA), has set a target of Rs 1 lakh crore turnover for the Tiruppur cluster by 2020 – from the current Rs 36,000 crore.

“I want to lead by example and increase our company’s turnover by at least three times before 2020,” says Shanmugam, who had also served as chairman of NIFT – TEA,  a fashion technology institute promoted by TEA, from 2007 to 2013, and in his tenure had constructed a 1.65 lakh sq ft building for the institute.

Shanmugam also holds 25 per cent stakes in Alphine Knits India Private Limited, a Rs 225 crore turnover company – started in 2003 – that owns a spinning mill and is into trading of industrial sewing machines. His brother Ramaswamy holds another 25 per cent stakes in Alphine.

In 2013, Warsaw and Alphine along with five other companies launched a joint venture, Apex Clothing Company India Limited, which set up a 30 MW captive solar plant to meet the power needs of the promoters.

Raja Shanmugam, in front of TEA office, where he spends most of his afternoons

The company is also getting into an integrated coconut project that includes manufacture of coir, coir pith products, and virgin coconut oil.

Shanmugam devotes the second half of each day for TEA activities as he believes it is part of his service to the community.

On Sundays he remains at home, just lazing around, watching TV and relaxing with his wife Sujhetha, a homemaker, and son Vishal who has joined Apex after completing automobile engineering from PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore.

Finally, looking back, does he regret not getting the IAS? “Not at all. In fact it’s my friends who are IPS officers now who are regretting. They say I am blessed, and lucky to be on my own,” he says, laughing.

Raja M. Shanmugam elected as the new president of Tirupur Exporters’ Association (TEA).2022-07-13T11:24:15+00:00
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